The concepts and principles or risk management and the identification and analysis of pipeline risks using suitable assessment methods. This course will provide an awareness of pipeline risk management, the factors influencing pipeline risk and why risk assessment is required.
• Risk management and risk assessment codes and standards.
• Pipeline failure hazards (time-dependent and random), for onshore and offshore pipelines.
• Consequences of pipeline failure, for gas and liquid lines (onshore and offshore).
• Risk tolerability and risk acceptance criteria.
• Risk mitigation measures and industry best practice.
The learner will gain an awareness of pipeline design (front end engineering, and detailed design) principles, standards and regulations, and will understand the bases of the key contents of design standards including design for strength and fatigue. This course will cover:
• The history of pipelines, and pipeline standards, laws and regulations
• Planning, and economics of a pipeline
• Stakeholders in a pipeline operation
• Line pipe, bends, components, and installations
• Routeing (with beneficial features and constraints)
• Construction and testing (in a rural environment)
• Inspection and surveillance
• Pipeline safety, and safety record
This course will provide the learner with an awareness of the generic repair methods for metal loss, dents, cracks and leaks, and forms of structural damage, and they will gain an understanding of how the repair works.
• Methods and techniques for onshore and sub-sea pipeline repairs.
• Standard pressure reduction requirements prior and during repair.
• Budgeting time and cost factors comparing cut-out with live repairs.
• Permanent versus temporary repairs.
This course will give the learner an awareness of pipeline materials’ properties and selection, and the composition and mechanical properties of carbon steel and corrosion resistant pipeline materials, welds, connectors, flexible pipelines, and non-metallic pipeline materials.
• Types of steels.
• Basic material properties.
• Available manufacturing and heat treatment processes.
• Chemical composition and alloying approaches.
• Material characterization using metallography, mechanical testing and non-destructive testing.
• Typical material defects.
The course will provide the learner with an awareness of differing integrity management methods/techniques, and an understanding of pipeline integrity management and systems, and the threats to pipeline safety and the consequences of pipeline failure.
• Pipeline integrity management system.
• Safety Management Systems (SMS) and the role they play in Pipeline Integrity Management.
• Threats to pipeline integrity (pipeline defects and their causes).
• Inspection, testing, maintenance, and surveillance options (focus on in line inspection, above ground surveys and patrols).
• Risk assessment (probability of failure, failure consequences).
• Integrity management planning (prescriptive, risk based).
• Pipeline integrity data management, data quality.
This course provides the learner with knowledge of pipeline internal corrosion mechanisms, and an awareness of internal pipeline corrosion causes, types, and processes.
• Corrosion principles basics.
• Types of pipeline internal corrosion.
• Pipeline internal environment impact of corrosion.
• Corrosion growth rates.
• Measuring corrosion (e.g., by coupons).
• Effect of water in crude oil, products, and natural gas.
This course provides an awareness of internal pipeline corrosion monitoring, prevention and mitigation.
• Corrosion principles and types of internal corrosion.
• General concepts in pipeline internal corrosion monitoring and mitigation.
• History of corrosion in pipelines, and effect on safety.
• Product specifications.
• Inhibitors and biocides to control corrosion.
• Linings to control corrosion.
• Corrosion allowances.
• Material selection (including corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steels, and special alloys).
• Maintenance pigging.
This course provides an awareness of external corrosion and related degradation mechanisms on pipelines, effects of environment and awareness of relevant mitigation strategies, pipeline factory applied coatings types, and field-applied coatings types, including the key reasons behind the use of coatings, and an awareness of the requirements for a coating's success over an asset's life cycle.
• History of corrosion in pipelines and the effect on safety.
• Corrosion and related degradation mechanisms (causes, processes, types, effects of environment and prevention).
• Coating types, selection, design, application, and inspection.
• Basics of environmental conditions, surface preparation and application.
• Basics of coating application and inspection.
• Typical coating failures.
• Environmental cracking.
• Cathodic protection.
The learner will gain an awareness of pipeline construction methods; its principles, practices, and execution in various terrains.
• History of pipeline construction and the ‘spread’ method
• Construction project planning, management, and overall project costs and timescales
• Laws and Regulations
• Routing and permits
• Line pipe, fittings, and installations
• Working width, right of way
• Pipeline construction sequence (planning to completion) and construction activities
• Environmental considerations
• Telecommunications and SCADA
• Safety considerations
The learner will gain an awareness of pipeline defect assessments methods (for all types of defects found in pipelines) and fatigue assessment, with a basic understanding of fracture mechanics.
• Material properties (strength, ductility, hardness, and toughness)
• Fracture mechanics: history, key parameters, methods, and published good practices
• Stress analysis (internal pressure and external loading)
• Pipeline failure causes (with a focus on external interference, corrosion, materials defects, fatigue, ground movement, theft)
• Modes of failure (including ductile, brittle, overload, and fatigue)
• Case studies in pipeline failures
• Corrosion assessment, crack assessment, mechanical damage assessment
• Crack management in pipelines
The underlying principles, concepts, and technical parameters in in-line inspection (ILI) technologies and procedures, as applied to pipelines and similar cylindrical pressure vessels, giving the individual an all-round understanding.
• History of pigging, and in-line inspection.
• Pipelines, pigs and ILI: current and future.
• Associated market including understanding the number of service providers and supply vs demand issues.
• Components of an In-line Inspection (the pipeline, its environment, the vehicle, the mechanics and electronics of the vehicle, and the data gathering, analysis, interpretation, and reporting) and how they affect performance.
This course provides and awareness of internal and external pipeline inspection technologies and procedures, inspection standards and guidelines (including ISO, API, ASME, ANSI, NACE, DNV and specific national documents), and regulations, and their content related to pipeline inspection, including in-line inspection.
• External pipeline inspection principles (techniques and technologies).
• Internal pipeline inspection principles (techniques and technologies).
• Environment influences on pipeline integrity.
• Threats to pipeline integrity.
This course will present an overview of the key reasons for using Cathodic Protection and the requirements for CP system success over an asset’s life cycle.
• Basics of electricity, electrical laws, electrochemistry, corrosion, and CP theory.
• CP system components.
• Basic report preparation, and recordkeeping.
• Safety issues specific to CP.
• Main regulations and standards related to CP.
This online course will provide an overview of the principles, concepts, procedures and methods in pipeline stress analysis.
• Pressure, stress.
• Stresses in pipelines caused by internal pressure and external loadings.
• Stress versus strain.
• Mechanical properties (strength, deformation, fracture).
• Stressing guidelines in pipeline standards, including allowable stresses and design factors.
• Effect of subsea environment, and stresses in risers.
• Effect of ground movement on pipelines.
The underlying principles, concepts, technical parameters and methods for assessing defects such as cracks, in high pressure pipelines and associated components under static and cyclic (fatigue) loading, including the determination of appropriate loadings and material properties.
• History of fracture mechanics. Material properties, including ductile and brittle fracture, and transition curves. Strength, toughness, and ductility.
• Structural mechanics, stress, strain, strength. Effect of notches and cracks on structures.
• Linear elastic fracture mechanics, and the stress intensity factor.
• Fatigue predictions using S-N curves and fracture mechanics crack growth.
• Effects of environment on fracture and fatigue.
The underlying principles, concepts, and technical parameters in failure modes and mechanisms, as applied to pipelines, giving the individual an all-round understanding of failure modes and mechanisms. Objective is to provide overview of failure modes (collapse, buckling, etc.) and failure mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, etc.).
• Why failures occur.
• Loading types (tension, torsion, compression, etc.)
• Brittle and ductile failures.
• Failure modes (collapse, buckling), and failure modes from pressure loading (leak, etc.).
• Failure mechanisms (including corrosion and fatigue).
• Modes of failure (including ductile, brittle, overload, and fatigue).
• Failure mechanisms and their causes (including cracking, corrosion growth, and erosion), modes, and final failure.
This course provides an awareness of the role of risk assessment in risk and integrity management and the tools and techniques commonly used to conduct a pipeline risk assessment (e.g. HAZOPS, FMEA, and checklists).
• Concepts of pipeline risk, including probability, hazards, failure scenarios and consequences.
• Qualitative and quantitative methods for pipeline risk analysis.
• Additional ways of presenting risk; e.g., individual and societal risk, risk matrix score, etc..
• Role of risk analysis results in pipeline risk management.
This online course will provide an awareness of various pipelines hazards which may lead to loss of containment and assessing the probability of failure, from qualitative to quantitative analysis.
• Probability of Failure (PoF) assessment, including general lists of pipeline hazards, given in codes and standards and industry guidelines.
• Pipeline segmentation due to pipeline design and different failure hazards), for onshore and offshore pipelines.
• Data requirements for probability of failure analysis.
• Industry and operator historical failure frequency statistics.
This course will provide the learner with knowledge of of the various consequences of pipeline failure scenarios, including the impact on people, the environment, infrastructure, and the business itself.
• Concept of ‘high consequence areas’ and use of pipeline segmentation in qualitative consequence of failure (CoF) analysis.
• Concept of failure scenarios, hazard zones, receptors and consequential damage for onshore/offshore pipelines and different products.
• Qualitative and quantitative methods of consequential damage assessment following pipeline failure.
• Comparison of consequence ‘costs’ along pipelines and across networks.
This course provides an awareness of the different types of defects that can appear in pipelines, their causes, and the threats they pose to the pipeline.
• Line pipe, its manufacture, standards, defects, and defect acceptance levels.
• Line pipe welds (longitudinal, and spiral), welding processes, inspection methods, and defects (e.g. lack of fusion, laminations, hook cracks, porosity).
• Pipeline welds (circumferential): standards, inspection methods, and defects (including geometric defects such as misalignment).
• Common pipeline construction related defects (e.g. misalignment) and their causes.
• Common types of internal and external corrosion (e.g. pitting, general) and their causes.
• In-service defects (e.g. mechanical damage, stress corrosion cracking and fatigue cracking).