Definitions and Terms

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Able to do a task (this is ‘skill’).


The process of certification. ISO defines ‘accreditation’ as… ‘the formal recognition by an independent body, generally known as an accreditation body, that a certification body operates according to international standards.’

Anon., ‘Quality management systems – Requirements’, ASQ/ANSI/ISO 9001:2015. American National Standard. 2015. Also,


An evaluation and demonstration of understanding against the learning outcomes. Assessments are conducted against specified criteria. These criteria are specified by a subject matter expert: they are not based on other students’ performances.

An assessment can be:

  • Self assessment (e.g.,).
  • Written or oral examination.
  • Interview.
  • Hands-on demonstration.
  • Assessment of experience and training portfolio.
  • Etc..

An outcome-based assessment means the assessment must be evidence-based, and:

  • State the required competency and refer to its standard (i.e., a  Competency Standard). 
  • Provide clear assessment criteria for judging performance.
  • Specify the level of performance evidence required for the job.

Awarding Body

‘Awarding Bodies/Organisations issue certificates for qualifications to formally recognise the achievements of individuals.  They quality assure the delivery and assessment of those qualifications.’